dhamma

dhammo

🇮🇹 IPPD - Italian

m. 1. principio, legge di natura, verità essenziale di ogni cosa, (rivelazione) insegnamento del Buddho 2. fenomeno, oggetto, contenuto mentale 3. caratteristica, proprietà – strum. sing. ( usato in s. avv.) dhammena ‘propriamente'; nom. pl. (norm.) dhammā, (rar.) dhammāni°ānupassanā f. contemplazione degli oggetti o fenomeni mentali; °cārin- agg. che agisce in sintonia con il Dhammo, virtuoso; °ṭṭhitiñāṇaṃ n. conoscenza della costanza o stabilità del Dhammo; °dānaṃ n. dono del Dhammo; °vādin- agg. che parla in conformità con il Dhammo; °vicayo m. investigazione dei fenomeni, investigazione del Dhammo

Ciò che la mente contiene, quello si chiama dhammo.

Molte delle parole usate dal Buddho sono difficili da tradurre perché non hanno equivalenti in altre lingue. Di queste, dhammo è la più difficile. La sua gamma di significato è vasta. Il suo significato fondamentale è dharetī ti d hamm o : ovvero ‘ciò che è contenuto’ (D./Sīlaṭkāth/2. Sāmaññaphalasuttavaṇ./Ajātasattuupāsakattapaṭivedanākathā). In altre parole indica ciò che è contenuto nella mente.

Un'estensione di tale significato rese il concetto di "natura o caratteristica di qualsiasi cosa sorga nella mente":

Attano sabhāvaṃ attano lakkha aṃ dhāretī ti dhamm o .

Quest'accezione di d hamm o significa ‘natura, caratteristica intrinseca'.

A volte nelle lingue dell'India di oggi, si dice che il dhammo del fuoco è quello di bruciare. Ardere è la sua caratteristica, altrimenti non è fuoco. Il dhammo del ghiaccio è quello di esser freddo, altrimenti non è ghiaccio. Allo stesso modo r ā g o ‘brama' contiene il proprio dhamm o o caratteristica, che è creare agitazione e infelicità. Il dhammo dell'amore e della compassione è la calma, l'armonia e la pace. Quindi dhammo divenne la natura o la qualità.

Dopo alcuni secoli il termine dhammo nella sua accezione di ‘natura', fu diviso in kusala- ‘salutare’ e akusala- ‘non salutare', con riferimento ai suoi frutti. Le impurità contenute nella mente – come la rabbia, l'odio, l'animosità, la passione, la paura e l'ego, che dànno frutti non salutari – furono chiamate akusala-. Le qualità positive e che rendevano la vita più armoniosa – come la compassione, la buona volontà e il servizio disinteressato – furono chiamate kusala-. Così nella letteratura antica troviamo dhammo diviso in "puro" e "impuro".

Lentamente akusala- divenne adhamm a- o p āpa-, ovvero ‘non dhamm a- ‘ o ‘peccato', ciò che causa il rivolgimento nella miseria. Di converso l'aggettivo dhamm a- finì per qualificare tutto ciò che è sano, le qualità positive contenute in una persona e che portano alla liberazione.

Il significato di dhammo continuò ad espandersi ancòra. Osservando il risultato di un contenuto mentale – ad esempio le conseguenze di rabbia o compassione – si comprende la legge di causa ed effetto, cioè la legge della natura.

Ricapitolando dhammo può essere qualunque cosa sia contenuta nella mente, o la caratteristica di ciò che è contenuto, o la legge della natura – cioè la legge dell'universo.

.[Goenka 2020, pagg..]


🇬🇧 Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Dhamma1

masculine & rarely neuter constitution etc.

A. Definitions by Commentators

Bdhgh gives a fourfold meaning of the word dhamma (at DN-a.i.99; Dhp-a.i.22), viz. 1 guṇe (saddo), applied to good conduct 2 desanāyaṁ, to preaching & moral instruction 3 pariyattiyaṁ, to the 9 fold collection of the Buddh Scriptures (see navanga); 4 nissatte (-nijjīvate), to cosmic (non-animistic) law
No. 1 is referred to freq in explains of the term, e.g. dhammiko ti ñāyena samena pavattatī ti DN-a.i.249; dhamman ti kāraṇaṁ ñāyaṁ Pv-a.211; as paṭipatti-dhamma at Vv-a.84; No. 3 e.g. also at Pv-a.2. Another and more adequate fourfold definition by Bdhgh is given in Dhs-a.38, viz. 1 pariyatti or doctrine as formulated, 2 hetu, or condition causal antecedent, 3 guṇa, or moral quality or action 4 nissatta-nijīvatā, or “the phenomenal” as opposed to “the substantial,” “the noumenal,” “animistic entity.” Here (2) is illustrated by hetumhi ñāṇaṁ dhammapaṭisambhidā: “analytic knowledge in dhamma’s means insight into condition, causal antecedent Vb.293, and see Niyama (dhamma˚). Since, in the former fourfold definition (2) and (3) really constitute but one main implication considered under the two aspects of Doctrine as taught and Doctrine as formulated we may interpret Dhamma by the fourfold connotation: doctrine, right or righteousness, condition, phenomenon.
For other exegetic definitions see the Coms & the Niddesa, e.g. Mnd.94; for modern explanations & analyses see e.g. Rhys Davids, Buddh. India pp. 292–⁠4; Mrs. Rh. Davids, Buddhism (1912) pp. 32 sq. 107 sq., 235 sq.; Dhs. trsl. xxxiii. sq.; and most recently the exhaustive monograph by M. & W. Geiger, Pāli Dhamma. Abhandlungen der Bayer. Akademie xxxi.1; München 1920; which reached the editors too late to be made use of for the Dictionary.

B. Applications and Meaning

  1. Psychologically: “mentality” as the constitutive element of cognition & of its substratum, the world of phenomena. It is that which is presented as “object” to the imagination & as such has an effect of its own; a presentation; (Vorstellung), or idea, idea, or purely mental phenomenon as distinguished from a psycho-physical phenomenon or sensation (re-action of sense-organ to sensestimulus). The mind deals with ideas as the eye deals with forms: it is the abstraction formed by mano, or mind proper, from the objects of sense presented by the sense-organ when reacting to external objects Thus cakkhu “faculty of sight” corresponds to rūpa “relation of form” & mano “faculty of thought (citta & ceto its organ or instrument or localisation corresponds to dhamma “mentalized” object or “idea” (Mrs. Rh. D. “mental object in general,” also “state of mind”)-
    1. subjective: mental attitude thought, idea, philosophy, truth, & its recognition (anubodhi) by the Buddha, i.e. the Dhamma or worldwisdom = philosophy of the Buddha as contained expounded in the Dialogues of the 5 Nikāyas (see below C.)
      Note. The idea of dhamma as the interpreted Order of the World is carried further in the poetical quasi-personification of the Dh. with the phrase “dhammaja dh-nimmita dh-dāyāda” (born of the Norm, created by the Norm, heir of the Norm; see under compounds and Dhammatā; also s. v. Niyama). That which the Buddha preached, the Dhamma κα ̓τ ἐςοξήν, was the order of law of the universe, immanent, eternal uncreated, not as interpreted by him only, much less invented or decreed by him, but intelligible to a mind of his range, and by him made so to mankind as bodhi revelation, awakening. The Buddha (like every great philosopher & other Buddhas preceding Gotama: ye pi te ahesuṁ atītaṁ addhānaṁ Arahanto Sammāsambuddhā te pi dhammaṁ yeva sakkatvā SN.i.140) is a discoverer of this order of the Dhamma, this universal logic, philosophy or righteousness (“Norm”), in which the rational & the ethical elements are fused into one. Thus by recognition of the truth the knower becomes the incorporation of the knowable (or the sense of the universe = Dhamma) & therefore a perfect man one who is “truly enlightened” (sammā-sambuddha) so Bhagavā jānaṁ jānāti passaṁ passati cakkhu-bhūto ñāṇa-bhūto dhamma˚ brahma˚ & in this possession of the truth he is not like Brahmā, but Brahmā himself & the lord of the world as the “master of the Truth” vattā pavattā atthassa ninnetā Amatassa dātā dhammassāmī SN.iv.94; & similarly “yo kho Dhammaṁ passati so mam passati; yo mam passati so Dhammaṁ passati = he who sees the Buddha sees the Truth SN.iii.120. Cp with this also the dhamma-cakka idea (see compounds). On equation Dhamma = Brahman see esp. Geiger, Dhamma pp. 76–80, where is also discussed the formula Bhagavato putto etc. (with dhammaja for the brahmanic brahmaja)
      In later (Abhidhamma) literature the (dogmatic) personification of Dhamma occurs. See e.g. Tikp A 366.
      As 6th sense-object “dhamma” is the counterpart of “mano”: manasā dhammaṁ viññāya “apperceiving presentations with the mind” SN.iv.185 etc. (see formula under rūpa); mano-viññeyyā dhammā SN.iv.73 cp. SN.iii.46; SN.iv.3 sq.; SN.v.74; DN.iii.226, DN.iii.245, DN.iii.269. Ranged in the same category under the anupassanā-formula (q.v.) “dhammesu dhamm-ânupassin” realising the mentality of mental objects or ideas, e.g. DN.ii.95, DN.ii.100 DN.ii.299; AN.i.39, AN.i.296; AN.ii.256; AN.iii.450; AN.iv.301. Also as one of the 6 taṇhās “desire for ideas” DN.iii.244, DN.iii.280
      As spirituality opposed to materiality in contrast of dh. āmisa: Iti.98 (˚dāna: a mat. & a spir. gift)
    2. objective: substratum (of cognition), piece, constituent (= khandha), constitution; phenomenon, thing “world,” cosmic order (as the expression of cosmic sense, as under a & 2). Thus applied to the khandhas vedanādayo tayo kh. Dhp-a.i.35 (see Khandha B 3); to rūpa vedanā saññā sankhārā viññāna SN.iii.39; = sankhārā DN.iii.58, DN.iii.77, DN.iii.141. Freq. in formula sabbe dhammā aniccā (+ dukkhā anattā: see nicca) “the whole of the visible world, all phenomena are evanescent etc.” SN.iii.132 sq. & passim.; diṭṭhe [va] dhamme in the phenomenal world (opp. samparāyika dh. the world beyond): see under diṭṭha (SN.iv.175, SN.iv.205 etc.)
      ye dhammā hetuppabhavā tesaṁ hetuṁ Tathāgato āha “of all phenomena sprung from a cause the Buddha the cause hath told” Vin.i.40 (cp. Isā Upanishad 14). lokadhammā things of this world (viz. gain, fame happiness etc., see under lābha) DN.iii.260; Cnd.55. uttari-manussa-dh˚ā transcendental, supernormal phenomena DN.i.211, cp. DN.iii.4; abbhuta-dh˚ā wonderful signs, portents Mil.8 (tayo acchariyā a. dh. pāturahesuṁ); Pv-a.2: hassa-khiḍḍhā-rati-dh
      samāpanna endowed with the qualities or things of mirth, play enjoyment DN.i.19; DN.iii.31; gāma˚ things or doings of the village DN.i.4 (cp. DN-a.i.72).
  2. Ratio-ethically-
    1. objective: “rationality,” anything that is as it should be according to its reason & logicality (as expressed under No. 1 a), i.e. right property, sound condition, norm, propriety, constitution as conforming to No. 1 in universal application i.e. Natural or Cosmic Law: yattha nāmañ ca rūpaṁ ca asesam uparujjhati, taṁ te dhammaṁ idhâññāya acchiduṁ bhavabandhanaṁ (recognising this law) SN.i.35 cittacetasikā dh˚ ā a term for the four mental khandhas, and gradually superseding them Dhs.1022 (cf. Compendium of Philosophy, 1); dasadhamma-vidū Vin.i.38 (see dasa); with attha, nirutti and paṭibhāna one of the 4 Paṭisambhidās (branches of analytic knowledge AN.ii.160; Pts.i.84, Pts.i.88 etc.; Vb.293 f., Points of Controversy, p.380. In this sense freq -˚ as adj.: being constituted, having the inherent quality (as based on Natural Law or the rational constitution of the Universe), destined to be…, of the (natural) property of…, like (cp. Gr ειδής or E able, as in change-able = liable to change, also E hood, -ly & P-gata, -ṭhita), e.g. ; khaya -dhamma liable to decay (+ vaya˚, virāga˚, nirodha˚), with ref. to the Sankhāras SN.iv.216 sq.; in the Paṭiccasamuppāda SN.ii.60; akkhaya imperishable Pv.iv.1#52 (dānaṁ a-dh. atthu). cavana˚ destined to shift to another state of existence DN.i.18 DN.iii.31; Iti.76; Vv-a.54. jāti-jarā-maraṇa˚ under the law of birth, age, & death DN.iii.57; AN.i.147; AN.iii.54; Pv-a.41 (sabbe sattā…); bhedana˚; fragile (of kāya) DN.i.76; SN.i.71; Pv-a.41 (bhijjana˚ of sankhārā). vipariṇāma changeable AN.i.258; AN.iv.157; Pv-a.60 (+ anicca). unchanging DN.iii.31 sq. samudaya˚ & nirodha˚;, in formula yaṁ kiñci s-dh˚ṁ sabban tan n-dh˚ṁ “anything that is destined to come into existence must also cease to exist” DN.i.110, DN.i.180; SN.iv.47 & passim. Cp. further anāvatti˚ avinipāta˚ DN.i.156; DN.iii.107, DN.iii.132; AN.i.232 AN.ii.89, AN.ii.238; AN.iv.12; anuppāda˚ DN.iii.270
    2. subjective: “morality,” right behaviour, righteousness practice, duty; maxim (cp. ṭhāna), constitution of character as conforming to No. 1 in social application i.e. Moral Law. Often in pl.: tenets, convictions moral habits; & as; adj. that which is proper, that which forms the right idea; good, righteous, true; opp. adhamma false, unjust etc.; evil practice.
      1. Righteousness etc.: SN.i.86 (eko dh. one principle of conduct SN.ii.280 (dh. isinaṁ dhajo: righteousness is the banner of the Wise); kusala dh. DN.i.224; dhamme ṭhita righteous Vv.16#8; ñāti˚ duty against relatives Pv-a.30; deyya˚ dāna Pv-a.9, Pv-a.70; sad˚ faith (q.v.) -opp. adhamma unrighteousness, sin AN.ii.19; AN.v.73 sq.; DN.iii.70 (˚rāga visama-lobha & micchā-dhamma); Pv.iii.9#6 (˚ṁ anuvattisaṁ I practised wrong conduct)
        In the same sense: dh. asuddho Vin.i.5 = SN.i.137 (pāturahosi Magadhesu pubbe dh. a.); pāpa˚ (adj.) of evil conduct Vin.i.3; aṭṭhita˚ unrighteous DN.iii.133; lobha˚ greedy quality DN.i.224, DN.i.230; methuna dh. fornication DN.iii.133
      2. (pl.) Tenets, practices etc
        (aa) good: kusalā dh. DN.ii.223, DN.ii.228; DN.iii.49, DN.iii.56, DN.iii.82, DN.iii.102 etc.; SN.ii.206 sappurisa˚ AN.v.245, AN.v.279; Pv-a.114; samaṇa˚ Wanderer’s practice or observances Dhp-a.ii.55. brāhmaṇakaraṇā DN.i.244; yesaṁ dh˚ānaṁ Gotamo vaṇṇavādin DN.i.206 cp. sīlaṁ samādhi paññā ca vimutti ca anuttarā: anubuddhā ime dhammā Gotamena yasassinā DN.ii.123 dhammānaṁ sukusalo perfect in all (these) qualities DN.i.180; samāhite citte dhammā pātubhavanti “with composed mind appear true views” SN.iv.78; dhammesu patiṭṭhito SN.i.185; ananussutesu dh˚esu cakkhuṁ udapādi “he visualized undiscovered ideas” SN.ii.9.
        (bb) evil: āvaraṇīyā SN.iv.104; pāpakā Vin.i.8; DN.i.70; AN.i.202; akusalā DN.iii.56, DN.iii.57, DN.iii.73, DN.iii.91 etc.; lobha˚, dosa˚ moha˚ SN.i.70 = Iti.45 = Cnd.420; SN.i.43; MN.iii.40; dukkhavipākā vodanīyā saṁkilesikā ponobbhavikā DN.i.195 DN.iii.57
        (cc) various: gambhīrā duddasā etc. Vin.i.4; DN.i.12; SN.i.136. Cp. SN.ii.15, SN.ii.26; Cnd.320; Iti.22, Iti.24; Pts.i.5, Pts.i.22, Pts.i.28; Vb.105, Vb.228, Vb.293 sq. etc. etc
      3. (adj.) good, pious, virtuous etc.: adhammo nirayaṁ neti dhammo pāpeti suggatiṁ “the sinners go to niraya, the good to heaven” Thag.304 = DN-a.i.99 = Dhs-a.38; Dhp-a.i.22. kalyāṇa˚ virtuous AN.i.74, AN.i.108; AN.ii.81, AN.ii.91 AN.ii.224 sq.; Pv-a.13. Opp. pāpa˚ Vin.iii.90; cp. above a.
      4. (phrases). Very freq. used as adv. is the instr dhammena with justice, justly, rightly, fitly, properly Vin.i.3; DN.i.122; SN.iv.331; Vv.34#19 (= kāraṇena ñāyena vā Vv-a); Pv.ii.9#30 (= yutten’ eva kāraṇena Pv-a.125 as just punishment); Pv.iv.16#9 (= anurūpakāraṇena Pv-a.286). Esp. in phrase of the cakkavattin, who rules the world according to justice: adaṇḍena asatthena dhammena anusāsati (or ajjhāvasati) DN.i.89; DN.ii.16; SN.i.236 = Snp.1002; cp. Snp.554 (dhammena cakkaṁ vattemi, of the Buddha). Opp. adhammena unjustly unfitly, against the rule Vin.iv.37; SN.i.57; SN.iv.331; DN-a.i.236
        dhamme (loc.) honourably Ja.ii.159. dhammaṁ carati to live righteously Pv.ii.3#34; see also below C 3 & dh- cariyā.

C. The Dhamma

i.e. moral philosophy, wisdom truth as propounded by Gotama Buddha in his discourses & conversations, collected by the compilers of the 5 Nikāyas (dhamma-vinayaṁ sangāyantehi dhammasangāhakehi ekato katvā Vv-a.3; cp. mayaṁ dh.˚ṁ ca vinayañ ca sangāyāma Vin.ii.285), resting on the deeper meaning of dhamma as explained under B 1 a, & being in short the “doctrinal” portions of the Buddhist Tipiṭaka in contradiction to the Vinaya, the portion expounding the rules of the Order (see piṭaka). Dhamma as doctrine is also opposed to Abhidhamma “what follows on the Dhamma.”

  1. Dhamma and Vinaya, “wisdom & discipline,” as now found in the 2 great Piṭakas of the B. Scriptures, the Vinaya and Suttanta Piṭaka (but the expression “Piṭako” is later. See Piṭaka). Thus bhikkhū suttantikā vinaya-dharā dhamma kathikā, i.e. “the bhikkhus who know the Suttantas, remember the Vinaya & preach the Word of the Buddha” Vin.ii.75 (≈ Vin.i.169), cp. Vin.iv.67. Dhamma & Vinaya combd: yo ‘haṁ evaṁ svâkkhāte Dh-vinaye pabbajito SN.i.119; bhikkhu na evarūpiṁ kathaṁ kattā hoti: na tvaṁ imaṁ Dh-v˚ṁ ājānāsi, ahaṁ imaṁ Dh-v˚ṁ ājānāmi etc. SN.iii.12; imaṁ Dh-v˚ṁ na sakkomi vitthārena ācikkhituṁ SN.i.9; samaṇā… imasmiṁ Dh-v˚e gādhanti SN.iii.59
    Thus in var. compounds (see below), as Dh-dhara (+ V-dh.) one who knows both by heart Dh-vādin (+ V-v.) one who can recite both, etc
    See e.g. the foll. passages: Vin.ii.285 (dh. ca v. ca pariyatta), Vin.ii.304; Vin.iii.19, Vin.iii.90; DN.i.8, DN.i.176, DN.i.229; DN.ii.124 (ayaṁ Dh. ayaṁ V. idaṁ Satthu-sāsanaṁ); DN.iii.9, DN.iii.12, DN.iii.28, DN.iii.118 sq. SN.i.9, SN.i.119, SN.i.157; SN.ii.21, SN.ii.50, (dh-vinaye assāsa); AN.iii.297 (id.); SN.ii.120; SN.iii.91; SN.iv.43 sq., SN.iv.260; AN.i.34, AN.i.121, AN.i.185 AN.i.266; AN.ii.2, AN.ii.26, AN.ii.117, AN.ii.168; AN.iii.8, AN.iii.168 sq.; AN.iv.36, AN.iv.200 sq. AN.v.144, AN.v.163, AN.v.192; Iti.112; Snp.p.102; Ud.50.
  2. Dhamma, Buddha, Sangha. On the principle explained in Note on B 1 a rests the separation of the personality of the teacher from that which he taught (the “Doctrine,” the “Word,” the Wisdom or Truth, cp Dhamma-kāyo Tathāgatassa adhivacanaṁ DN.iii.84) A person becoming a follower of the B. would conform to his teaching (Dh.) & to the community (“Church” Sangha) by whom his teaching was handed down. The formula of Initiation or membership is therefore threefold, viz. Buddhaṁ saraṇaṁ upemi (gacchāmi), Dhp ˚ṁ…, Sanghaṁ… i.e. I put myself into the shelter of the B., the Dh. & the S. (see further ref. under Sangha) SN.i.34 (Buddhe pasannā Dhamme ca Sanghe tibbagāravā: ete sagge pakāsenti yattha te upapajjare i.e. those who adore the B. & his Church will shine in Heaven); DN.ii.152 sq., DN.ii.202 sq., DN.ii.352; SN.iv.270 sq (˚saraṇagamana); Dhp-a.i.206; Pv-a.1 (vande taṁ uttamaṁ Dhp ˚ṁ, B ˚ṁ, S ˚ṁ). Cp. Satthari, Dhamme Sanghe kankhati, as 3 of the ceto-khilā AN.iii.248
  3. Character of the Dhamma in var. attributes, general phraseology
    The praise of the Dh. is expressed in many phrases, of which only a few of the more frequent can be mentioned here. Among the most famous is that of “dhammaṁ deseti ādi- kalyāṇaṁ majjhe-k˚ pariyosāna-k˚, etc. “beautiful in the beginning, beautiful in the middle & beautiful in the end,” e.g. DN.i.62; SN.i.105; SN.iv.315; AN.ii.147, AN.ii.208; AN.iii.113 sq., AN.iii.135, AN.iii.262; DN.iii.96, DN.iii.267; Cnd.316; Iti.79; Vv-a.87. It is welcome as a friend, beautifully told, & its blessings are immediate: sv’ akkhāta, sandiṭṭhika, akālika, ehipassika etc. DN.ii.93; DN.iii.5, DN.iii.39, DN.iii.45, DN.iii.102; SN.i.9, SN.i.117; SN.ii.199; SN.iv.271; AN.iii.285 etc. It is mahā -dh. SN.iv.128; ariya˚; SN.i.30; AN.v.241, AN.v.274; Snp.783; sammā˚; SN.i.129. It is likened to a splendid palace on a mountain-top Vin.i.5 = Iti.33 or to a quiet lake with sīla as its banks SN.i.169 = SN.i.183 and it is above age & decay: satan ca dhammo na jaram upeti SN.i.71. Whoever worships the Dh. finds in this worship the highest gratification: diyo loke sako putto piyo loke sako pati, tato piyatarā… dhammassa magganā SN.i.210; ye keci ariyadhamme khantiyā upetā… devakāyaṁ paripūressanti SN.i.30. Dhp ˚ṁ garukaroti DN.iii.84. Opp. Dhamme agārava AN.iii.247 AN.iii.340; AN.iv.84: the slanderers of the Dh. receive the worst punishment after death SN.i.30 (upenti Roruvaṁ ghoraṁ)-Var. phrases: to find the truth (i.e. to realize intuitively the Dh.) = dh˚ṁ anubodhati DN.ii.113; SN.i.137, or vindati DN.i.110, DN.i.148. To expound the Dh., teach the truth, talk about problems of ethics & philosophy dh˚ṁ deseti Vin.iv.134; SN.i.210 etc.; katheti Pv-a.41 bhāsati Vin.i.101; bhaṇati Vin.i.169; pakāseti SN.ii.28 SN.iv.121. To hear the Dh., to listen to such an exposition: dh˚ṁ suṇāti SN.i.114, SN.i.137, SN.i.196, SN.i.210; AN.i.36; AN.iii.163; Dhp-a.iii.81, Dhp-a.iii.113. To attain full knowledge of it: dh ˚ṁ pariyāpuṇāti AN.ii.103, AN.ii.185; AN.iii.86, cp. AN.iii.177 & ˚pariyatti. To remember the Dh.: dhāreti AN.iii.176 (for details of the 5 stages of the Dh
    accomplishment); to ponder over the Dh., to study it: dh ˚ṁ viciṇāti SN.i.34 = SN.i.55, SN.i.214; AN.iv.3 sq. To enter a relation of discipleship with the Dh.: dh ˚ṁ saraṇaṁ gacchati (see above 2) Pv.iv.3#48 dhammaṁ saraṇatthaṁ upehi Vv.53#2 (cp. Vv-a.232). See further Pts.i.34, Pts.i.78, Pts.i.131; Pts.ii.159 sq.; Pp.58, Pp.66 Vb.293 sq., Vb.329; Ne.11, Ne.15, Ne.31, Ne.83, Ne.112; & cp. cpds
  4. Dhamma and anudhamma. Childers interprets anudhamma with “lesser or inferior dhamma,” but the general purport of the Nikāya passages seems to be something like “in conformity with, in logical sequence to the dhamma” i.e. lawfulness, righteousness, reasonableness, truth (see KS ii.202; Geiger, Pāli Dhamma pp. 115–118). It occurs (always with Dh.) in the foll contexts: dhammassa c’ ânudh ˚ṁ vyākaroti “to explain according to the truth of the Dhamma” DN.i.161 DN.iii.115; Ud.50; dhammassa hoti anudhammacārin “walking in perfect conformity to the Dh.” AN.ii.8 dh- anudh ˚ṁ ācaranti id. DN.iii.154; dh- anudh˚ paṭipanna “one who has reached the complete righteousness of the Dh.” DN.ii.224; DN.iii.119; SN.iii.40 sq.; Iti.81; AN.iii.176 (where it forms the highest stage of the Dhammaknowledge viz. 1 dh ˚ṁ suṇāti; 2 pariyāpuṇāti 3 dhāreti; 4 atthaṁ upaparikkhati; 5 dh-anudh ˚ṁ paṭipajjati). Further in series bahussuta, dhammadhara dh-anudh˚-paṭipanna DN.ii.104; SN.v.261; AN.ii.8; Ud.63; also in dhamma-kathika, dh-anudh˚-paṭi panna, diṭṭha-dhamma-nibbāna-patta SN.ii.18 = SN.ii.114 SN.iii.163; & in atthaṁ aññāya, dhammaṁ aññāya, dhanudh˚-paṭipanna AN.i.36; AN.ii.97.
  • -akkhāna discussing or preaching of the Dhamma Mnd.91;
  • -atthadesanā interpretation of the Dh. Mil.21
  • -ādhikaraṇa a point in the Dh. SN.iv.63 = SN.v.346;
  • -ādhipa Lord of righteousness (+ anudhamma-cārin) AN.i.150 cp. ˚ssāmi; nt. abstr.
  • -ādhipateyya the dominating influence of the Dh. AN.i.147 sq.; DN.iii.220; Mil.94 Vism.14.
  • -ānudhamma see above C 4;
  • -anuvattin acting in conformity with the moral law Dhp.86, cp Dhp-a.ii.161;
  • -ānusārin of righteous living DN.iii.105, DN.iii.254 (+ saddhā˚); MN.i.226, MN.i.479; AN.i.74; AN.iv.215; AN.iv.23; SN.v.200; Pp.15; Ne.112, Ne.189;
  • -anvaya main drift of the faith, general conclusions of the Dh., DN.ii.83 DN.iii.100; MN.ii.120;
  • -abhisamaya understanding of the Truth, conversion to the Dhamma [cp. dharmâbhisamaya Divy.200] SN.ii.134 (+ dh- cakkhu-paṭilābha) Pp.41; Mil.20; Dhp-a.i.27; Dhp-a.iv.64; Pv-a.31 etc.
  • -āmata the nectar of righteousness or the Dh. Mil.22 (˚meghena lokaṁ abhitappayanto), Mil.346;
  • -ādāsa the mirror of the Dhamma DN.ii.93 (name of an aphorism SN.v.357 (id.); Thag.395; Thag-a.179;
  • -āyatana the field of objects of ideation SN.ii.72; Dhs.58, Dhs.66, Dhs.147, Dhs.397, Dhs.572 Dhs.594; Vb.70, Vb.72 sq.;
  • -ārammaṇa: dh. as an object of ideation Dhs.146, Dhs.157, Dhs.365; cp. Dhs. trsl. 2;
  • -ārāma “one who has the Dh. as his pleasure-ground,” one who rejoices in the Dh. AN.iii.431; Iti.82 (+ dh-rata); Snp.327; Dhp.364, cp. Dhp-a.iv.95;
  • -ālapana using the proper address, a fit mode of addressing a person as followed by the right custom. See Dial. i.193–196; Ja.v.418
  • -āsana “the Dh-seat,” i.e. flat piece of stone or a mat on which a priest sat while preaching Ja.i.53; Dhp-a.ii.31
  • -ūposatha the fast day prescribed by the Dh. AN.i.208
  • -okkā the torch of Righteousness Ja.i.34;
  • -oja the essence or sap of the Dh. SN.v.162; Dhp-a.iv.169;
  • -osadha the medicine of the Dh. Mil.110, Mil.335.
  • -kathā ethical discussion, fit utterance, conversation about the Dh. advice DN.iii.151; Ja.i.217; Vv-a.6; Pv-a.50, Pv-a.66;
  • -kathika (adj.) one who converses about ethical problems, one who recites or preaches the Dh., one who speaks fitly or properly. Often in combn. with Vinaya-dhara “one who masters (knows by heart) the Vinaya,” & bahussuta “one who has a wide knowledge of tradition” Vin.iv.10, Vin.iv.13, Vin.iv.141; AN.iii.78; Dhp-a.ii.30; also with suttantika “one who is versed in the Suttantas” Vin.i.169; Vin.ii.75; Vin.iv.67. The ability to preach the Dhp is the first condition of one who wishes to become perfected in righteousness (see dhamm-ânudhamma, above C 4): SN.ii.18, SN.ii.114 = SN.iii.163; MN.iii.40 AN.i.25 sq. AN.ii.138; Pp.42; Ja.i.217; Ja.iv.2 (˚thera). Cp. also Avs.ii.81;
  • -kathikatta (nt.) speaking about the Dh.; preaching MN.iii.40; AN.i.38 (+ vinayadhara-katta);
  • -kamma a legally valid act, or procedure in accordance with the Rules of the Order Vin.iv.37, Vin.iv.136, Vin.iv.232; AN.i.74 (+ vinaya˚);
    a˚ an illegal act Vin.iv.232; AN.i.74
  • -karaka a proper or regulation (standard) water-pot i.e. a pot with a filter for straining water as it was used by ascetics Vin.ii.118, Vin.ii.177, Vin.ii.301; Ja.i.395; Ja.vi.331; Dhp-a.iii.290, Dhp-a.iii.452; Vv-a.220 (not ˚karaṇena); Pv-a.185; Mil.68;
  • -kāma a lover of the Dh. DN.iii.267; AN.v.24, AN.v.27 AN.v.90, AN.v.201; Snp.92.
  • -kāya having a body according to the Norm (the dhammatā of bodies). See Bdhgh as translated in Dial. iii. ad loc.; having a normal body (sic Bdhgh, esp. of the B. DN.iii.84;
  • -ketu the standard of the Dh., or Dh. as standard AN.i.109 = AN.iii.149;
  • -khandha the (4) main portions or articles of the Dh. (sīla samādhi, paññā, vimutti) DN.iii.229; cp. Sp. Avs.ii.155;
  • -gaṇa a body of followers of the Dh. Pv-a.194
  • -gaṇḍikā (better gaṇṭhikā, q v.) a block of justice, i.e. of execution Ja.i.150, Ja.i.151; Ja.ii.124; Ja.vi.176; Ja.v.303;
  • -garu worshipping the Dh. SN.iv.123; Dhp-a.i.17 (˚ka);
  • -gariya a kind of acrobatic tumbler, lit. excellent t. (+ brahma˚ Mil.191;
  • -gu one who knows the Dh. (analogous to vedagu) Ja.v.222; Ja.vi.261;
  • -gutta protecting the Dh. or protected by the Dh. (see gutta) SN.i.222; Ja.v.222 (+ Dhammapāla);
  • -ghosaka (-kamma) praise of the Dh. Dhp-a.iii.81
  • -cakka the perfection or supreme harmony of righteousness (see details under cakka), always in phrase dh-cakkaṁ pavatteti (of the Buddha) “to proclaim or inaugurate the perfect state or ideal of universal righteousness” Vin.i.8 = MN.i.171; Vin.i.11; SN.i.191 SN.iii.86; Snp.556, Snp.693; Mil.20, Mil.343; Dhp-a.i.4; Vv-a.165; Pv-a.2, Pv-a.67 etc.; besides this also in simile at SN.i.33 of the car of righteousness;
  • -cakkhu “the eye of wisdom, perception of the law of change. Freq. in the standing formula at the end of a conversation with the Buddha which leads to the “opening of the eyes” or conversion of the interlocutor, viz. “virajaṁ vītamalaṁ dh-cakkhuṁ udapādi” DN.i.86, DN.i.110; DN.ii.288; SN.iv.47; AN.iv.186; Vin.i.11, Vin.i.16, Vin.i.40 etc. Expl. at DN-a.i.237 dhammesu vā cakkhuṁ dhammamayaṁ vā cakkhuṁ Cp. SN.ii.134 (˚paṭilābha; + dhammâbhisamaya); Dial. i.184; ii.176;
  • -cariyā walking in righteousness, righteous living, observance of the Dh., piety (= dānādi-puññapaṭipatti Vv-a.282) SN.i.101 (+ samacariyā kusalakiriyā); AN.ii.5; AN.iii.448; AN.v.87, AN.v.302; Snp.263 (= kāyasucaritâdi˚ Snp-a.309), Snp.274 (+ brahma˚).
    a˚ evil way of living AN.i.55 (+ visama-cariyā);
  • -cārin virtuous, dutiful MN.i.289; MN.ii.188; Dhp.168; Mil.19 (+ samacārin)
  • -cetiya a memorial in honour of the Dh. MN.ii.124
  • -chanda virtuous desire (opp. kāma˚) Dhs-a.370; Vb.208;
  • -ja born of the Dh. (see above, Note on B 1 a), in formula “Bhagavato putto oraso dh-jo, dh-nimmito dh-dāyādo” (the spiritual child of the Buddha) DN.iii.84 = SN.ii.221; Iti.101;
  • -jāla “net of the Dh.,” name of a discourse (cp. ˚ādāsa & pariyāya) DN.i.46;
  • -jīvin living righteously Iti.108; Dhp.24 (= dhammenā samena Dhp-a.i.239);
  • -ññū one who knows the Dh. Ja.vi.261
  • -ṭṭha standing in the Law, just, righteous SN.i.33 (+ sīlasampanna); Snp.749; Ja.iii.334; Ja.iv.211; Thag-a.244
  • -ṭṭhita = ˚ṭṭha DN.i.190;
  • -ṭṭhiti˚; having a footing in the Dh. SN.ii.60, SN.ii.124, cp. ˚ṭṭhitatā: establishing of causes and effects SN.ii.25;
  • -takka right reasoning Snp.1107 (= sammāsankappa Cnd.318);
  • -dāna gift of;
  • -dāyāda heir of the Dh.; spiritual heir (cp. above note on B 1 a) DN.iii.84; SN.ii.221; MN.i.12; MN.iii.29; Iti.101;
  • -dīpa the firm ground or footing of the Dh. (usually combined with atta-dīpa: having oneself as one’s refuge, self-dependent) DN.ii.100; DN.iii.58 DN.iii.77; SN.v.154;
  • -desanā moral instruction, exposition of the Dh. Vin.i.16; DN.i.110 etc. (see desanā);
  • -dessin a hater of the Dh. Snp.92;
  • -dhaja the banner of the Dh. AN.i.109 AN.iii.149; Cnd.503; Mil.21;
  • -dhara (adj.) one who knows the Dh. (by heart); see above C4. combined w. Vinayadhara Vin.i.127, Vin.i.337; Vin.ii.8; AN.i.117, & bahussuta (ibid) Snp.58 (cp. Snp-a.110)
    See also AN.iii.361 sq., AN.iv.310 Cnd.319;
  • -dhātu the mental object considered as irreducible element Dhs.58, Dhs.67, Dhs.147 etc.; Vb.87, Vb.89 (see above B 1); an ultimate principle of the Dh., the cosmic law DN.ii.8; MN.i.396; SN.ii.143 sq.; Ne.64 sq.; Vism.486 sq.
  • -dhāraṇa knowledge of the Dh. MN.ii.175
  • -nāṭaka a class of dancing girls having a certain duty Ja.v.279;
  • -nimmita see ˚ja;
  • -niyāma belonging to the order of the Norm DN.i.190; DA on DN.ii.12: dhammatā (˚ka);
  • -niyāmatā, certainty, or orderliness of causes and effects SN.ii.25; Points of Controversy, 387;
  • -netti niyāma Mil.328; DN-a.i.31; cp. Sk. dharmanetrī Mvu.ii.357; Mvu.iii.234, Mvu.iii.238;
  • -pajjota the lamp of the Dh. Mil.21;
  • -pada (nt.) a line or stanza of the Dhamma a sentence containing an ethical aphorism; a portion or piece of the Dh. In the latter meaning given as 4 main subjects, viz. anabhijjhā, avyāpāda, sammā-sati sammā-samādhi DN.iii.229; AN.ii.29 sq. (in detail) Ne.170
    SN.i.22 (dānā ca kho dh-padaṁ va seyyo), SN.i.202 (dh-padesu chando); AN.ii.185; Snp.88 (dh-pade sudesite = nibbāna-dhammassa padattā Snp-a.164) Ja.iii.472 (= nibbāna); Dhp-a.iii.190 (ekaṁ dh-padaṁ) As Np. title of a canonical book, included in the Khuddaka Nikāya;
  • -pamāṇa measuring by the (teaching of Dh. Pp.53; Dhp-a.iii.114 (˚ikāni jātisatāni);
  • -pariyatti attainment of or accomplishment in the Dh., the collection of the Dh. in general AN.iii.86 (w. ref. to the 9 angas see navanga);
  • -pariyāya a short discourse, or a verse or a poem, with a moral or a text; usually an exposition of a single point of doctrine DN.i.46; DN.ii.93; DN.iii.116; MN.i.445; Vin.i.40 (a single verse); AN.i.65; AN.iv.63 (a poem Snp.190Snp.218, where also it is called a dh˚pariyāyo) AN.v.288, AN.v.291. Such a dh˚pariyāya had very often a special name. Thus Brahmajāla, the Wondrous Net DN.i.46; Dhammādāso dh˚p˚, the Mirror of the Law DN.ii.93 = SN.v.357; Sokasallaharaṇa, Sorrow’s dart extractor AN.iii.62; Ādittap˚ dh˚p˚, the Red-hot lancet SN.iv.168; Lomahaṁsana˚ MN.i.83; Dhammatā-dhamma Mil.193, etc.
  • -pāla guardian of the Law or the Dhp Ja.v.222, freq. also as Np.;
  • -pīti (-rasa) the sweetness of drinking in the Dh. (pivaṁ) Snp.257; Dhp.79 (= dhammapāyako dhammaṁ pivanto ti attho Dhs-a.ii.126)
  • -bhaṇḍāgārika treasurer of the Dh., an epithet of Ānanda Thag.1048; Ja.i.382, Ja.i.501; Ja.ii.25; Dhp-a.iii.250; Pv-a.2
  • -bhūta having become the Dh.; righteousness incorporated said of the Buddhas DN.iii.84. Usually in phrase (Bhagavā) cakkhu-bhūta… dh-bhūta brahmabhūta AN.v.226 sq. (cp. cakkhu); Thag.491; see also above, note B 1 a;
  • -bheri the drum of the Dh. Mil.21
  • -magga the path of righteousness Snp.696; Mil.21
  • -maya made (built) of the Dh. (pāsāda) SN.i.137;
  • -yanta the (sugar-) mill of the Dh. (fig.) Mil.166.
  • -yāna the vehicle of the Law (the eightfold Noble Path) SN.v.5
  • -rakkhita rightly guarded Snp.288;
  • -rata fond of the Law Snp.327; Dhp.364; Dhp-a.iv.95; cp. dh- [gatā]rati Thag.742; Dhp.354;
  • -rasa taste of Dhp.354;
  • -rājā king of righteousness, epithet of the Buddha SN.i.33 = SN.i.55; DN.i.88 (of a cakkavatti); AN.i.109; AN.iii.149; Snp.554; Ja.i.262 interpreted by Bdhgh at DN-a.i.249 as “dhammena rajjaṁ labhitvā rājā jāto ti” = a king who gained the throne legitimately;
  • -laddha one who has acquired the Dh., holy, pious SN.ii.21; Ja.iii.472; justly acquired (bhogā) Snp.p.87;
  • -vara the best of truths or the most excellent Doctrine Snp.233, Snp.234;
  • -vādin speaking properly speaking the truth or according to the Doctrine Vin.ii.285; Vin.iii.175 (+ Vinaya-vādin); DN.iii.135 (id.) DN.i.4, DN.i.95 (of Gotama; DN-a.i.76: nava-lokuttara-dhamma sannissitaṁ katvā vadati); SN.iv.252; AN.i.75; AN.ii.209
  • -vicaya investigation of doctrine, religious research Dhs.16, Dhs.20, Dhs.90, Dhs.309, Dhs.333, Dhs.555; Vb.106; Vism.132
  • -vitakka righteous thought AN.i.254;
  • -vidū one who understands the Dh., an expert in the Dh. Ja.v.222 Ja.vi.261;
  • -vinicchaya righteous decision, discrimination of the truth Snp.327; Dhp.144; Dhp-a.iii.86;
  • -vihārin living according to the Dh. AN.iii.86 sq.;
  • -saṁvibhāga sharing out or distribution of the Dh., i.e. spiritual gifts Iti.98 (opp. āmisa˚ material gifts);
  • -saṅgāhaka a compiler of the sacred scriptures, a διασκευαστής Vv-a.3, Vv-a.169
  • -saññā righteous thought, faith, piety Pv-a.3;
  • -sabhā a hall for the discussion of the Dh., a chapel, meetinghouse Ja.vi.333; Dhp-a.i.31; Dhp-a.ii.51; Dhp-a.iv.91; Pv-a.38, Pv-a.196
  • -samaya a meeting where the Dh. is preached SN.i.26
  • -samādāna acquisition of the Dh., which is fourfold as discussed at MN.i.305; DN.iii.229;
  • -saraṇa relying on or putting one’s faith in the Dh. (see above C 3) DN.iii.58 DN.iii.77; SN.v.154;
  • -savana hearing the preaching of the Dh. “going to church” Vin.i.101; MN.ii.175; AN.ii.248, AN.ii.381 AN.iv.361; Snp.265; Dhp-a.iii.190;
  • -sākaccha conversation about the Dh. Snp.266;
  • -ssāmi Lord of the Truth, epithet of the Buddha (see above B 1 a note) SN.iv.94;
  • -sāra the essence of the Dh. SN.v.402;
  • -sārathi in purisa-dh- s˚ at DN.i.62 misprint for purisa-damma-s˚;
  • -sārin a follower of the Dh. SN.i.170;
  • -sudhammatā excellency of the Dhp SN.ii.199; Thag.24, Thag.220, Thag.270, Thag.286;
  • -senāpati “captain of the Dhamma,” epithet of Sāriputta Thag.1083; Ja.i.408; Mil.343; Dhp-a.iii.305; Vv-a.64, Vv-a.65, Vv-a.158;
  • -soṇḍatā thirst after justice Ja.v.482;
  • -sota the ear of the Dh. SN.ii.43.

Ved. dharma & dharman, the latter a formation like karman (see kamma for expln of subj. & obj. meanings); dhṛ; (see dhāreti) to hold support: that which forms a foundation and upholds constitution. Cp. Gr. χρόνος, Lat. firmus & fretus Lith. derme (treaty), cp. also Sk. dhariman form, constitution perhaps = Lat. forma, E. form

Dhamma2

adjective only in f. in combination with kathā: relating to the Dhamma, viz conversation on questions of Ethics, speaking about the Dh., preaching, religious discourse, sermon. Either as dhammī kathā Vin.ii.161; Vin.iv.56 & in instr
abl dhammiyā kathāya (sandasseti samādapeti samuttejeti saṁpahaṁseti: ster. formula) SN.i.114, SN.i.155, SN.i.210, SN.iv.122; Pv-a.30 etc.; or as cpd. dhammī-kathā DN.ii.1; MN.i.161; Snp.325; & dhammi-kathā SN.i.155; Pv-a.38.

Sk. *dhārma, cp. dhammika

Dhamma3

adjective having a bow: see daḷha˚; also as dhammin in daḷha˚ SN.i.185 (see dhammin).

Sk. dhanvan